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Course (s)/program (s) that are of the highest demand in Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s government owns the majority of higher education institutions. As a result, Ethiopia’s ministry of education sets minimum grade criteria and quotas for various programs based on the number of university seats available each year (Roach, 2021). The government has recently tried to push 70% of students into engineering and natural science studies and 30% into humanities and social science programs. Because the government intervenes in assigning what fields students study, most engineering and natural science students have high competition in getting a job. As a result, most of them become unemployed or work in a different profession than what they graduated with; there is also a high demand for social science-related jobs.
The demand for disciplines like architecture, medicine, veterinary medicine, or pharmacy is high. Unfortunately, few students study these fields, requiring entrance exams after entering higher education, resulting in a low enrollment rate (Roach, 2021).
The most popular undergraduate programs at public institutions are engineering and technology, business and economics, and social sciences and humanities. Over half of the students at private institutions study business or economics, followed by health sciences, engineering, and technology. However, most students that join private institutions are those with low grades. In addition, a relatively low number of students graduate in health science. And at the graduate level, social sciences and humanities are the most popular disciplines.
Ethiopia has a significant lack of medical practitioners, particularly in rural areas, and medical professionals are going overseas in large numbers. To prevent brain drain and expand health care throughout Ethiopia, all medical school graduates must register with the Ethiopian Ministry of Health for two to four years before specializing (Roach, 2021). Ethiopia also needs more teachers and faces tremendous challenges in training enough qualified instructors (Gemeda, 2021). In most of the country’s schools, teachers continue to teach without the required minimum academic qualifications, which affects the country’s education quality.
The teaching language in Ethiopia
Ethiopia’s working language is Amharic. Because only 30% of Ethiopians speak it as their first language, the language of instruction in primary schools differs by area. Depending on the location, they introduce English to students between the fifth and eighth grades, and it is the only language of instruction in secondary and higher education. It can be difficult for students to understand the courses, especially since both students and teachers have limited English language abilities.
Studies on primary school children consistently show that they have serious language problems and lack the basic skills of reading and writing in all three languages, their native language, Ethiopia’s working language, and English. Thus, English is primarily a severe challenge to many subject teachers and teachers teaching English as a course. (Teferra et al., 2018).
The most common learning delivery mode in Ethiopia
Teachers, textbooks, and chalkboards were Ethiopia’s primary teaching methods until and for most of the twentieth century. As a result, print was the most frequently implemented
technology in education (Yigezu, 2021). However, in today’s digital age, educational systems are under increasing pressure to use digital technology to teach students the knowledge and skills required. The primary barrier to using digital technology has been teachers’ and students’ insufficient knowledge and capacity. Although most teachers and students are
familiar with word processing, digital content in teaching and learning
subject areas is not yet fully developed.
According to the 2016 National ICT Policy and Strategy, like many developing countries,
Ethiopia has embraced ICTs as an enabler to widen access to education, support literacy education, and facilitate educational delivery and training at all levels (Alemu, 2017).
Ethiopia has made significant investments in its education and administrative systems in recent years despite its economic constraints and limited infrastructure capabilities. And even though there is much to be done to leverage digital technology’s potential in education, reports show they launched significant efforts to integrate digital technology into the teaching-learning process. It includes large-scale initiatives like the national School Net initiative and the Satellite Plasma TV Project (Yigezu, 2021).
Roach, E. (2021, August 6). Education in Ethiopia. WENR.
Teferra, T., Asgedom, A., Oumer, J., W/hanna, T., Dalelo, A., & Assefa, B.
(2018). Ethiopian Education Development Roadmap (2018-30). Addis Ababa.
Gemeda, F. (2021). Australian Journal of Teacher Education | Edith Cowan University.
Retrieved November 8, 2021, from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte
Alemu, B. M. (2017). Transforming educational practices of Ethiopia into development and the knowledge society through information and communication technology. African
Educational Research Journal, 5(1): 1-14.
Yigezu, M. (2021). Digitalization in teaching and education in Ethiopia. Geneva:
International Labour Office. Retrieved fromhttps://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/ed_dialogue/